Ledumahadi mafube (lay-DOO mah-HAH-dee mah-FOO-bay)
African word meaning: "A Giant Thunderclap at Dawn”
Dinosaurs facts change often. At this date, February 2019, Ledumahadi is the largest land animal ever discovered. It lived over 200 million years ago. It weighed over 26,000 pounds; that’s the size of two African elephants. The first bones were discovered in 2012 and were found sticking out of rocks in a large field. The dinosaur found was a fully grown adult and was approximately fourteen-years-old. Ledumahadi is related to Brontosaurus. They where Sauropods. They ate plants (herbivores) and walked on all four legs. Ledumahadi lived before Brontosaurus, at the “Dawn” of the Sauropods. The Ledumahadi mafube’s limbs were trick and heavy. Their front limbs were squatted and stooped and it would have been difficult to support its massive weight. Researchers used data compiled from dinosaurs, animals, and reptiles to determine Ledumahadi mafube walked on all fours. Earlier in 2018, Argentina announced the discovery of a gigantic dinosaur (Ingentia prima). At the time of their announcement, Ingentia prima was the largest land animal ever discovered. South Afica’s Ledumahadi mafube is a close relative to the Argentina dinosaur, Scientist feel this supports the idea all continents were assembled as Pangaea (a super continent, made up of much of the world’s land mass during the Early Jurassic period). South Africa is also known for the discovery of some of the earliest and largest turtles and a tiny carnivore called, Megapnosaurus. Cool Stuff!
Maiasaura (mah-ee-ah-SAWR-uh) Maiasaura means
"Good Mother Lizard"
Notice it doesn't end in "rus" like many dinosaur names. This is one of the few dinosaurs with a female name. Ending in "saura" makes it a feminine (girl) name. If it were "saurus" it would be a masculine (boy) name. The paleontologist who named Maiasaura wanted to honor this dinosaur's strong mothering instincts. Maiasaura were herbivores and had special teeth to grind up vegetation. Baby Maiasaura lived in their nests and were fed by their parents who brought things like fruit and leaves for their babies to eat. Their crater-shaped nests were made from mud, twigs, and leaves. More than 200 skeletons were discovered in Montana. This led to the discovery that Maiasaura nested in groups. They were social and traveled together. Each year they left their nesting grounds and journeyed to a coastal area to find more food. Scientists believe they made this round trip each year. A fully grown Maiasaura could be 30 feet long. They had a duckbill, a bony crest in front of their eyes, and a narrow snout (nose) which faced down. They could walk on their two hind legs or on all four. Very Cool! The remains found in Montana equalled as many as 10,000 individual dinosaurs living together. That’s a lot!
Spinosaurus means "Spine Lizard"
The Spinosaurus was a carnivore. It was also a piscivore, which means it ate fish. The first skeletons were discovered in Egypt. Many lived on the North African coast. They had spines sticking up from their backbones like a fin or a sail. It is possible this fin was brightly colored. Some scientists believe this fin helped regulate their body temperature. Their spear-like teeth and crocodile-like skull made it possible for them to catch fish. Scientists believe they spent a lot of time in the water hunting for food. They think the Spinosaurus was able to dive underwater. They could eat and breathe at the same time like a crocodile. They could devour an entire shark. Spinosaurus is believed to be one of, if not, the largest predatory (carnivore) dinosaur. They were definitely larger than a T-Rex. It is believed they grew to be as long as 59 feet and weigh as much as 20 tons.
Minmi was named for the site of its discovery which was near Minmi
Crossing in Queensland, Australia
Minmi was an herbivore. They had small, rounded plates which covered their body and belly. Although adorable, their brains were very small. They lived in Australia and are the first known dinosaur from the Southern Hemisphere. Minmi was one of the smaller dinosaurs. They were about 10 feet long, and weighed between 500-1000 pounds. Scientists think they might have been fast runners because of their stiff back skeletal form and long legs. Scientists have been able to study the contents of these dinosaur's stomachs. From these studies, we know they ate fruit, seeds, and ferns. It is easy to remember Minmi was a small dinosaur because of its name! Think of mini! There is the possibility though, scientists have only discovered baby Minmi's and that's why they have been so small. What do you think?
Stegosaurus means "Plated Lizard" or "Roofed Lizard"
Stegosaurus was a plate-backed plant eater. Another word for plant eater is herbivore. They ate pine trees, small shrubs, and many kinds of ferns. Their skull was long and narrow like the shape of a horse. This made it easy to eat plants low to the ground. Scientists believe the plates on their back were more for "show" than for defense. They had four tall spikes on their tail which were used for protection. Stegosaurus had a very small brain and could not run very fast. It is believed they traveled in herds (groups). In the western United States, there is an area called the Morrison Formation. Many dinosaur discoveries have occurred in this region. Wyoming and Colorado are in the center of this formation. Over 80 individual Stegosaurus finds have occurred in this area. Talk about cool!
Troodon means "Wounding or Tearing Tooth"
They were ferocious meat-eaters (carnivores). If Minmi were one of the least intelligent dinosaurs, Troodon, was definitely one of the smartest! They were about 90 feet long. That is about the length of a ping pong table. Their teeth were extremely serrated or saw-like similar to T-Rex. They are often described as “bird-like." They had large eyes and perhaps even binocular vision. This would have helped them see in less light and identify dinosaurs hiding from them. Mother Troodons may have laid as many as 24 eggs in her nests at one time. Father Troodons also sat on egg-filled nests. Troodons had similar claws on their hands, slender legs, and a large claw on each foot (like the Velociraptor.) Troodon was discovered in North America and got its name when scientists found their scattered teeth. Paleontologists found Troodon nests in Montana. This location is now called Egg Mountain.
Tyrannosaurus Rex or Rex. (tye-RAN-uh-SAWR-us)
Tyrannosaurus Rex means "Tyrant Lizard King"
Tyrannosaurus Rex was a carnivore. A carnivore is an animal that eats meat.
T-Rex is the best-known dinosaur.
Although it was large, T-Rex was NOT the biggest carnivorous dinosaur.
The largest dinosaurs were herbivores (plant eaters).
T-Rex had serrated or saw-like teeth.
They could regrow their teeth every two years.
They had very short arms and hands with claw-like fingers.
They walked on two legs and their long tail helped them balance.
There are many jokes told about how small a T-Rex's arms were, however it is estimated
"they would have been able to arm curl over 400 pounds by using their biceps alone."
Their keen senses (smell, hearing, and eyesight) helped them hunt better.
They were thought to steal meat from other dinosaurs. They were considered scavengers.
Many T-Rex fossils have been found in the western part of North America.
It is possible when T-Rex was a baby their heads were covered in feathers.
As they grew older these feathers would have fallen out.
Velociraptor means "Fast Hunter" or "Swift Seizer"
They were covered with feathers and bird-like. Their nose was long and narrow. Velociraptor fossils have been found in Mongolia, China, and Russia. They were carnivores. Their razor-sharp teeth made it easier to hunt. They had eagle-like talons (shaped like a C) on their second toe. With this sharp claw, they could reach forward and grab animals to eat. Eagles do this today. They were fast runners. They were the size of a wild turkey and smaller than portrayed in movies. It's unclear if they hunted in packs. At most, they would have weighed about 33 pounds. They had a great sense of smell. They ate small animals like reptiles, amphibians, and smaller, slower dinosaurs. Birds today are related to Velociraptor.
- Found in South Africa
- Names means: “A Giant Thunderclap at Dawn”
- 200 million years old
- 26,000 pounds = 2 South African Elephants
- First bones discovered in 2012
- Announced and named 2018 - Related to Argentina Dinosaur
- Related to Brontosaurus
3) The most famous dinosaur?
5) True or False - Spinosaurus was larger than T-Rex?
7) Kind of dinosaur. Size of a turkey. Claw on a feathered foot. Sharp teeth. Long tail for balancing?
8) What was larger - plant eating dinosaurs or meat eating dinosaurs?
9) Meat and plant eater?
12) Legs stood directly under them. Walked on their toes. Most likely warm-blooded. Earthbound?
13) Plant eater?
14) An Allosaurus discovered in Wyoming’s nickname?
16) A dinosaur who ate sharks and lived on land and water?
18) What has five arms and five eyes and lives in the water?
20) True or false - Dinosaurs had pea size brains?
22) Insect eater?
23) This dinosaur means “Good Mother Lizard.” It has a female name which means it will end in SAURA instead of SAURUS?
24) The largest T-rex discovered was nick-named?
25) Scientists now believe some dinosaurs were covered in?
26) This animal is a mammal HOWEVER they lay eggs, they are found in Australia, they are shy?
27) This creature lives in the ocean on coral and rocks. They lived at the time of dinosaurs. Their cousin is the Sand Dollar. They are omnivores which means they eat plants and animals?
1) Fish eater?
2) This creature lived with dinosaurs and is alive today. Spinosaurus had some of the same characteristics because it lived on land and in the water?
3) What can a crocodile regrow if it loses one?
4) What shaped eggs did carnivores have?
6) One of the most famous long-necked sauropods. They discovered fossils in 1870 in the western United States. He was longer than three buses bumper to bumper?
10) What shaped eggs did herbivores have?
11) What have scientists renamed starfish?
14) Velociraptor is related to this present day creature?
15) Meat eater?
17) This dinosaur had a row of armored plates. He was an herbivore and peaceful?
19) A kind of crab with blue blood. They lived at the time of dinosaurs?
20) A remaining impression of a prehistoric organism. It could be a bug, a plant, a turtle, or a dinosaur. They help us learn about our past?
21) A dinosaur discovered and named in 2018 in Africa. They are now considered to be the largest land animal to ever live?
Crossword Puzzle Answers
- 3. TyrannosaurusRex
- 5. True
- 7. Velociraptor
- 8. Plant
- 9. Omnivore
- 12. Dinosaur
- 13. Herbivore
- 14. BigAL
- 16. Spinosaurus
- 18. Starfish
- 20. False
- 22. Insectivore
- 23. Maiasaura
- 24. Sue
- 25. Feathers
- 26. Platypus
- 27. SeaUrchin
- 1. Piscivore
- 2. Spinosaurus
- 3. Teeth
- 4. Oval
- 6. Diplodocus
- 10. Round
- 11. Seastar
- 14. Bird
- 15. Carnivore
- 17. Stegosaurus
- 19. Horseshoe
- 20. Fossil
- 21. Ledumahadi